White or Whole Wheat Bread
Period 1: Planning
Period 2: Dough preparation and baking
Period 3: Product evaluation
a) To acquaint the students with the principles of preparation of dough for breadmaking.
b) To familiarize the students with the use of industrial equipment for fermentation, proofing, and baking dough for bread.
c) To develop an appreciation for quality control procedures used for bread during and after the production process.
Breadmaking is an extremely complex process. Flour and water are used to provide a basic dough and other ingredients are usually added to enhance the texture and flavor of the product. The quality and type of flour, the additional ingredients, and the procedure used dictate the nature of the finished product. During the process, the proteins in flour pass through many stages of change in structure. Within this structure, formed by hydrated proteins, gasses produced by yeast during fermentation are retained. The food supply used by yeast during fermentation is created by the diastatic activity of amylolytic enzymes which are naturally present in flour. Heating (baking) is used to transform the raw, heavy, unstable dough mixture into a stable, light, soft edible loaf with an open texture, known as bread.
Almost every ingredient and every step in the bread making process has an impact on the characteristics of the final product. For additional background information see: http://class.fst.ohio-state.edu/FST401/Process-Equip/Baked-Products/Baked-Products.htm; http://www.breadrecipe.com/default.asp
Although this project is based on industrial practices, and industrial equipment is used, the formulations have been scaled down so that each student can participate in the entire process of breadmaking from start to finish, using the following formula to prepare a "batch" by the "straight dough" method.
Formulation and Baking of White Bread
Ingredients for making 2-1 lb. loaves of white bread. ( See http://allrecipes.com/directory/331.asp for other recipes)
6 cups flour 2 tablespoons shortening
2 cups warm water (85° F) 2 tablespoons sugar
2 packages yeast 2 teaspoons salt
1. Hydrate yeast in l/2 cup of warm water (85° F).
2. Melt shortening and add 1-1/2 cups warm water and sugar. Cool to 85° F. Add to this the yeast.
3. Mix with 3 cups of flour, and 2 teaspoons of salt. Then add the remaining 3 cups of flour as needed. Mix well.
4. Turn the dough onto a floured surface, then grease hands and knead the dough, working in as little extra flour as possible. The Instructor will demonstrate proper kneading. Some precautions are:
a) Never stick fingers into dough as this will break the gluten strands, decreasing volume.
b) Use as little flour as possible during kneading to avoid tough, heavy bread.
c) Too short a kneading time will result in a heavy, low volume bread. It is very difficult to knead bread too long by hand.
d) Always turn bread in the same direction, counter clockwise or clockwise.
e) Always fold towards yourself and roll away so that the seam is on top.
5. Knead until smooth and elastic (15 to 30 minutes), then turn into lightly greased bowl. Turn dough over once in the bowl to grease all surfaces, then cover bowl with moist towel.
6. Set in proofing oven at ~85° F-100° F. (Never let the temperature of the dough get above 110° F to avoid killing yeast.)
7. When bulk triples in size (1-2 hours), punch down, then remove dough from the bowl and shape into a ball, drawing the outsides up towards the center.
8. Cut into two even pieces using one quick stroke of a knife and shape into two balls, again drawing outsides up towards the middle.
9. Cover with damp towel and let the dough rest for 5 minutes.
10. Knead each ball lightly about 5-6 times, roll with rolling pin, then roll into a log and set into a bread pan with bottom oiled.
11. Press dough with backs of fingers into the shape of the pan, then cover with a damp towel and return to the proof oven.
12. Let rise until double in bulk, then place into a 350° F oven and back until golden brown (about 30 minutes).
Formulation and Baking of Whole Wheat Bread
To make whole wheat bread, use the above steps, but substitute 4 cups of whole-wheat flour for 4 cups of white flour.
1. Determine the weight of unbaked dough and the weight of the finished bread. Calculate the weight loss during baking.
2. Determine the density of the finished loaf.
3. Measure the contour of the bread.
4. Determine the thickness of the crust.
5. Make a texture print of the loaf cross section.
6. Evaluate the quality of the crumb.
7. Develop a sensory panel for evaluation of the texture and flavor of the product.
1. Connelly, P & Pittan, M 1997 Practical Bakery. Hodder and Stoughton, London
2. Cauvain, P and Young, L. S. 1998 Technology of Breadmaking. Blackie Academic and Professional, London
3. Stauffer C E 1990 Functional Additives for Bakery Foods. Von Nostrand Reinbold, NY